Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$865||Benefits minus costs||$43,179|
|Participants||$117||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$2,810||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$13,397||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||$25,988|
|Benefits minus cost||$43,179|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Violations of the conditions of an individual’s terms of probation, parole, or supervision.
A non-criminal act that is considered a law violation because the person committing the act is a juvenile.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$820||$0||$2,741||$410||$3,970|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$58||$137||$76||$0||$271|
|Costs of higher education||($13)||($20)||($6)||($6)||($45)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$12,994||$12,994|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$5,284||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$25,988|
|Comparison costs||$29,705||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Barton, W.H., & Butts, J.A. (1990). Viable options: Intensive supervision programs for juvenile delinquents. Crime and Delinquency, 36 (2), 238-256.
Lerman, P. (1975). Community treatment and social control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Weibush, R.G. (1993). Juvenile intensive supervision: The impact on felony offenders diverted from institutional placement. Crime and Delinquency, 39 (1), 68-89.