|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($1,565)||Benefits minus costs||($7,429)|
|Participants||($3,786)||Benefit to cost ratio||($50.75)|
|Others||($1,886)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($48)||benefits greater than the costs||11 %|
|Net program cost||($144)|
|Benefits minus cost||($7,429)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|null||Criminal justice system||$47||$0||$111||$23||$181|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($1,612)||($3,786)||($1,997)||$0||($7,395)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($72)||($72)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$72||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($144)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Augustine, C.H., Engberg, J., Grimm, G.E., Lee, E., Wang, E.L., Christianson, K., & Joseph, A. (2018). Can restorative practices improve school climate and curb suspensions?: An evaluation of the impact of restorative practices in a mid-sized urban school district. Rand Corporation.
Davidson, M., Penner, A.M., & Penner, E.K. (2019). Restorative for all? Racial disproportionality and school discipline under restorative justice. Annenberg Brown University.