|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$525||Benefits minus costs||$1,185|
|Participants||$278||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.85|
|Others||$509||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$181||benefits greater than the costs||90 %|
|Net program cost||($308)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,185|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$93||$217||$119||$119||$547|
|K-12 special education||$111||$0||$0||$55||$166|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$300||$85||$309||$150||$843|
|Costs of higher education||($16)||($24)||($7)||($8)||($54)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($154)||($154)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$289||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($308)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||9||5||1746||-0.161||0.049||9||-0.089||0.048||12||-0.177||0.001|
|Social and emotional development^||9||5||1748||0.153||0.053||9||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.161||0.001|
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Latch, D., Stauffer, M., & Bolling, M. (2017). Evaluation of the Roots of Empathy program in Switzerland, Years 2015 to 2017: Full Report. Bern Switzerland: Bern University of Applied Sciences.
Schonert-Reichl, K.A., Smith, V., Zaidman-Zait, A., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Promoting children’s prosocial behaviors in school: Impact of the “Roots of Empathy” program on the social and emotional competence of school-aged children. Social Mental Health: a Multidisciplinary Research and Practice Journal, 4(1), 1-21.
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