|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,866||Benefits minus costs||$7,800|
|Participants||($20)||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.31|
|Others||$5,725||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$699||benefits greater than the costs||97 %|
|Net program cost||($1,470)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,800|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Violations of the conditions of an individual’s terms of probation, parole, or supervision.
Alcohol use disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$2,902||$0||$5,756||$1,451||$10,109|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($7)||($16)||$0||$0||($22)|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($30)||($5)||($31)||($15)||($80)|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$0||$0||$0||($2)||($2)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($735)||($735)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,395||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,470)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Armstrong, T.A. (2003). The effect of Moral Reconation Therapy on the recidivism of youthful offenders: A randomized experiment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(6), 668-687.
Austin, J., Robinson, B., Elms, B., & Chan L. (1997). Evaluation of two models of treating sentenced federal drug offenders in the community (Document No. 179976). Washington, DC: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
Barnes, G.C., Hyatt, J.M., & Sherman, L.W. (2016). Even a little bit jelps: An implementation and experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral therapy for high-risk probationers. Criminal Justice and Behavior.
Berman, A.H. (2004). The Reasoning and Rehabilitation Program: Assessing short- and long-term outcomes among male Swedish prisoners. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 40(1/2), 85-103.
Bleick, C.R., & Abrams, A.I. (1987). The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice, 15(3), 211-230.
Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., & Rooney, J. (2000). A quasi-experimental evaluation of an intensive rehabilitation supervision program. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(3), 312-329.
Cann, J. (2006). Cognitive skills programmes: Impact on reducing reconviction among a sample of female prisoners (Research Findings No. 276). London: Home Office.
Cann, J., Falshaw, L., Nugent, F., & Friendship, C. (2003). Understanding what works: Accredited cognitive skills programmes for adult men and young offenders (Research Findings No. 226). London: Home Office.
Culver, H.E. (1993). Intentional skill development as an interventional tool. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(06), 2053A.
Duwe, G., & Clark, V. (2015). Importance of program integrity: Outcome evaluation of a gender-responsive, cognitive-behavioral program for female offenders. Criminology & Public Policy, 14(2), 301-328.
Falshaw, L., Friendship, C., Travers, R., & Nugent, F. (2004). Searching for 'What Works': HM Prison Service accredited cogintive skills programmes. British Journal of Forensice Practice, 6(2), 3-13.
Friendship, C., Blud, L., Erikson, M., Travers, R., & Thornton, D. (2003). Cognitive-behavioural treatment for imprisoned offenders: An evaluation of HM Prison Service's cognitive skills programmes. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 8(1), 103-114.
Golden, L.S., Gatchel, R.J., & Cahill, M.A. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of the National Institute of Corrections' 'Thinking for a Change' program among probationers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 43(2), 55-73.
Hatcher, R.M., Palmer, E.J., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J.C., Bilby, C.A.L., & Hollin, C.R. (2008). Aggression Replacement Training with adult male offenders within community settings: A reconviction analysis. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 19(4), 517-532.
Henning, K.R., & Frueh, B.C. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of incarcerated offenders: An evaluation of the Vermont Department of Corrections' cognitive self-change program. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(4), 523-541.
Hollin, C., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J., Hatcher, R., Bilby, C., & Palmer, E. (2008). Cognitive skills behavior programs for offenders in the community. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(3), 269-283.
Hubbard, D.J., & Latessa, E.J. (2004). Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: A look at outcome and responsivity in five treatment programs (Final report). Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, Division of Criminal Justice, Center for Criminal Justice Research.
Kownacki, R.J. (1995). The effectiveness of a brief cognitive-behavioral program on the reduction of antisocial behaviour in high-risk adult probationers in a Texas community. In R. R. Ross & R. D. Ross (Eds.), Thinking straight: The Reasoning and Rehabilitation program for delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation(pp. 249-257). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Air Training & Publications.
Larson, K.A. (1989). Problem-solving training and parole adjustment in high-risk young adult offenders. In S. Duguid (Ed.), The yearbook of correctional education, (pp. 279-299). Burnaby, BC: Simon Fraser University, Correctional Education Association.
Little, G.L., Robinson, K.D., Burnette, K.D., & Swan, E.S. (2010). Twenty-year recidivism results for MRT-treated offenders. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Review, 19(1), 1-5.
Lowenkamp, C.T., Hubbard, D., Makarios, M.D., & Latessa, E.J. (2009). A quasi-experimental evaluation of thinking for a change: A 'real-world' application. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(2), 137-146.
Martin, A.M., Hernandez, B., Hernandez-Fernaud, E., Arregui, J.L., & Hernandez, J.A. (2010). The enhancement effect of social and employment integration on the delay of recidivism of released offenders trained with the R & R programme. Psychology, Crime & Law, 16(5), 401-413.
Ortmann, R. (2000). The effectiveness of social therapy in prison—a randomized experiment. Crime & Delinquency, 46(2), 214-232.
Palmer, E.J., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J.C., Hatcher, R.M., Bilby, C.A.L., & Hollin, C.R. (2007). Offending behaviour programmes in the community: The effects on reconviction of three programmes with adult male offenders. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 12(2), 251-264.
Porporino, F.J., & Robinson, D. (1995). An evaluation of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation program with Canadian federal offenders. In R.R. Ross & R.D. Ross (Eds.), Thinking straight: The Reasoning and Rehabilitation program for delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation (pp. 155-191). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Air Training and Publications.
Raynor, P., & Vanstone, M. (1996). Reasoning and rehabilitation in Britain: The results of the Straight Thinking on Probation (STOP) programme. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 40(4), 272-284.
Robinson, K., Little, G., & Burnette, K.D. (1993). 5 recidivism results on MRT-treated DWI offenders released. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Review, 2(4), 2.
Robinson, D. (1995). The impact of cognitive skills training on post-release recidivism among Canadian federal offenders (Research Report No. R-41). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Research and Development.
Ross, R.R., Fabiano, E.A., & Ewles, C.D. (1988). Reasoning and rehabilitation. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 32(1), 29-36.
Sadlier, G. (2010). Evaluation of the impact of the HM Prison Service Enhanced Thinking Skills Programme on reoffending outcomes of the surveying prisoner crime reduction sample. London: Ministry of Justice.
Travers, R., Wakeling, H.C., Mann, R.E., & Hollin, C.R. (2011). Reconviction following a cognitive skills intervention: An alternative quasi-experimental methodology. Legal and Criminological Psychology. Advance online publication.
Van Voorhis, P., Spruance, L.M., Ritchey, P.N., Listwan, S.J., & Seabrook, R. (2004). The Georgia Cognitive Skills Experiment: A replication of Reasoning and Rehabilitation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 31(3), 282-305.
Van Voorhis, P., Spruance, L.M., Ritchie, P.N, Johnson-Listwan, S., Seabrook, R., & Pealer, J. (2002). The Georgia Cognitive Skills Experiment outcome evaluation phase II (Final report). Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati, Center for Criminal Justice Research.
Wilkinson, J. (2005). Evaluating evidence for the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Programme. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 44(1), 70-85.
Yessine, A.K., & Kroner, D.G. (2004). Altering antisocial attitudes among federal male offenders on release: A preliminary analysis of the counter-point community program (Research Report No. R-152). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Research and Development.
Zlotnick, C., Johnson, J., & Najavits, L.M. (2009). Randomized controlled pilot study of cognitive-behavioral therapy in a sample of incarcerated women with substance use disorder and PTSD. Behavior Therapy, 40(4), 325-336.