|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,866||Benefits minus costs||$7,800|
|Participants||($20)||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.31|
|Others||$5,725||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$699||benefits greater than the costs||97 %|
|Net program cost||($1,470)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,800|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Violations of the conditions of an individual’s terms of probation, parole, or supervision.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$2,902||$0||$5,756||$1,451||$10,109|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($7)||($16)||$0||$0||($22)|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($30)||($5)||($31)||($15)||($80)|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$0||$0||$0||($2)||($2)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($735)||($735)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,395||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,470)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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