|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$894||Benefits minus costs||$4,085|
|Participants||$2,099||Benefit to cost ratio||$395.71|
|Others||$1,108||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($5)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($10)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,085|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$894||$2,099||$1,108||$0||$4,101|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5)||($5)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$10||2019||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($10)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2019||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Doss, C.J., Fahle, E.M., Loeb, S., & York, B.N. (2018). More than just a nudge: Supporting kindergarten parents with differentiated and personalized text-messages. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 24450.
Kraft, M.A., & Monti-Nussbaum, M. (2017). Can schools empower parents to prevent summer learning loss? A text messaging field experiment to promote literacy skills. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political Social Science.