|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,884||Benefits minus costs||$7,347|
|Participants||$3,726||Benefit to cost ratio||$11.16|
|Others||$1,966||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($506)||benefits greater than the costs||64%|
|Net program cost||($723)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,347|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,586||$3,726||$1,966||($793)||$6,485|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$23||$0||$0||$11||$34|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$1,275||$0||$0||$637||$1,912|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($362)||($362)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,811||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($723)|
|Comparison costs||$1,584||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||40%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Borman, G.D., & Hewes, G.M. (2001). The long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of Success for All. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk, 53, 1-29.
Borman, G.D., Slavin, R.E., Cheung, A.C.K., Chamberlain, A.M., Madden, N.A., & Chambers, B. (2007). Final reading outcomes of the National Randomized Field Trial of Success for All. American Educational Research Journal, 44 (3), 701-731.
Madden, N., Slavin, R., Karweit, N., Dolan, L., & Wasik, B. (1993). Success for all: Longitudinal effects of a restructuring program for inner-city elementary schools. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 123-148.
Quint, J., Zhu, P., Balu, R., Rappaport, S., & DeLaurentis, M. (2015). Scaling up the Success for All model of school reform: Final report from the Investing in Innovation (i3) evaluation. New York, NY: MDRC.