|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$130||Benefits minus costs||$309|
|Participants||$89||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.45|
|Others||$157||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2||benefits greater than the costs||52 %|
|Net program cost||($69)|
|Benefits minus cost||$309|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Smoking before end of high school
Any smoking of tobacco by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Cannabis use before end of high school
Any use of cannabis by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Illicit drug use before end of high school
Any use of illicit drugs by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 to 18. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Smoking before end of high school||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$35||$83||$46||($18)||$146|
|Costs of higher education||($6)||($9)||($3)||($3)||($21)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$7||$8|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||Criminal justice system||$8||$0||$19||$4||$31|
|Illicit drug use before end of high school||Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$93||$14||$95||$46||$248|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($35)||($35)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$63||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($69)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Rohrbach, L.A., Sun, P., & Sussman, S. (2010). One-year follow-up evaluation of the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial. Preventive Medicine, 51, 313-319.
Sun, W., Skara, S., Sun, P., Dent, C.W., & Sussman, S. (2006). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Long-term substance use outcomes evaluation. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 188-192.
Sun, P., Sussman, S., Dent, C.W., & Rohrbach, L.A. (2008). One-year follow-up evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND-4). Preventive Medicine, 47(4), 438-442.
Sussman, S., Sun, P., McCuller, W.J., & Dent, C.W. (2003). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Two-year outcomes of a trial that compares health educator delivery to self-instruction. Preventive Medicine, 37(2), 155-162.
Sussman, S., Sun, P., Rohrbach, L.A., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2012). One-year outcomes of a drug abuse prevention program for older teens and emerging adults: evaluating a motivational interviewing booster component. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 31(4), 476-85.
Valente, T.W., Ritt-Olson, A., Stacy, A., Unger, J.B., Okamoto, J., & Sussman, S. (2007). Peer acceleration: Effects of a social network tailored substance abuse prevention program among high-risk adolescents. Addiction, 102(11), 1804-1815.