|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,910||Benefits minus costs||($924)|
|Participants||($1,664)||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.04|
|Others||($1,043)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$833||benefits greater than the costs||50 %|
|Net program cost||($959)|
|Benefits minus cost||($924)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|null||Criminal justice system||($96)||$0||($213)||($48)||($357)|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($715)||($1,679)||($886)||$0||($3,280)|
|K-12 grade repetition||($141)||$0||$0||($71)||($212)|
|K-12 special education||$2,809||$0||$0||$1,404||$4,213|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$54||$15||$55||$27||$151|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($479)||($479)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$926||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($959)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2017||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Fiel, J., Shoji, M., & Gamoran, A. (2015). An intervention approach to building social capital: effects on grade retention. In Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Social Capital. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Kratochwill, T.R., McDonald, L., Levin, J.R., Scalia, P.A., & Coover, G. (2009). Families and Schools Together: An experimental study of multi-family support groups for children at risk. Journal of School Psychology, 47(4), 245-265.
Kratochwill, T.R., McDonald, L., Levin, J.R., Young Bear-Tibbetts, H., & Demaray, M.K. (2004). Families and Schools Together: An experimental analysis of a parent-mediated multi-family group program for American Indian children. Journal of School Psychology, 42(5), 359-383..
Layzer, J.I., & Webb, M.B. (2001). National Evaluation of Family Support Programs, Volume B: Research Studies (Final report). Cambridge, MA.
Moberg, D.P., McDonald, L., Posner, J.K., Burke, M.L., & Brown, R.L. (2007). Randomized trial of Families and Schools Together (FAST): Final report on NIDA Grant R01-10067. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Madison.
Turley, R.N.L., Gamoran, A., McCarty, A.T., & Fish, R. (2017). Reducing children’s behavior problems through social capital: A causal assessment. Social Science Research, 61, 206-217.