|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,185||Benefits minus costs||$7,829|
|Participants||$3,441||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$845||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$726||benefits greater than the costs||83 %|
|Net program cost||$633|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,829|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Post-traumatic stress||Labor market earnings associated with PTSD||$1,366||$3,209||$0||$0||$4,576|
|Health care associated with PTSD||$819||$232||$845||$409||$2,305|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$316||$316|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$520||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$633|
|Comparison costs||$1,035||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 6(5), 349-54.
Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J G. (2002). Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 99-112.
Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25.