|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,154||Benefits minus costs||$6,493|
|Participants||$4,105||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.65|
|Others||$2,099||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($469)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($1,396)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,493|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,406||$3,303||$1,742||$0||$6,452|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|K-12 special education||$110||$0||$0||$55||$166|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$223||$63||$230||$111||$627|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$302||$710||$0||$0||$1,012|
|Health care associated with major depression||$100||$28||$103||$50||$281|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$6||$7|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($698)||($698)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,265||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,396)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||5||Primary||4||354||-0.112||0.094||5||0.000||0.141||6||-0.461||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||Primary||21||1507||-0.079||0.045||5||-0.043||0.033||8||-0.380||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder||28||Secondary||4||210||-0.068||0.118||28||-0.035||0.145||30||-0.115||0.462|
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