|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,802||Benefits minus costs||($5,997)|
|Participants||$139||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.29|
|Others||$3,897||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,353)||benefits greater than the costs||28 %|
|Net program cost||($8,482)|
|Benefits minus cost||($5,997)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Cannabis use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of cannabis use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1,451||$0||$3,615||$726||$5,793|
|Cannabis use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with cannabis abuse or dependence||$26||$61||$0||$0||$88|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$52||$0||$0||$26||$77|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$273||$77||$282||$137||$769|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,241)||($4,241)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$6,168||2001||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($8,482)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2001||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Hendriks, V., van, . S.E., & Blanken, P. (2011). Treatment of adolescents with a cannabis use disorder: Main findings of a randomized controlled trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in The Netherlands. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119, 64-71.
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Liddle, H.A., Rowe, C.L., Dakof, G.A., Henderson, C.E., & Greenbaum, P.E. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25.
Liddle, H.A., Dakof, G.A., Turner, R.M., Henderson, C.E., & Greenbaum, P.E. (2008). Treating adolescent drug abuse: A randomized trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Addiction, 103(10), 1660-1670.
Rigter, H., Henderson, C.E., Pelc, I., Tossmann, P., Phan, O., Hendriks, V., Schaub, M., ... Rowe, C.L. (2013). Multidimensional family therapy lowers the rate of cannabis dependence in adolescents: a randomised controlled trial in Western European outpatient settings. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130, 1-3.