Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,324||Benefits minus costs||$25,357|
|Participants||$156||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.53|
|Others||$20,083||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,161||benefits greater than the costs||73 %|
|Net program cost||($3,368)|
|Benefits minus cost||$25,357|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$379||$59||$390||$190||$1,018|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$41||$96||$0||$704||$841|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,684)||($1,684)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,114||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,368)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder||15||1||110||-0.175||0.142||15||0.000||0.187||18||-0.175||0.218|
|Illicit drug use disorder||15||1||110||-0.364||0.143||15||0.000||0.187||18||-0.364||0.011|
|Substance use disorder^||15||1||76||-0.143||0.163||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.143||0.381|
Friedman, A.S., Terras, A., & Glassman, K. (2002). Multimodal substance use intervention program for male deliquents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 11(4), 43-65.
Henderson, C.E., Dakof, G.A., Liddle, H.A., & Greenbaum, P.E. (2010). Effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy with higher severity substance-abusing adolescents: Report from two randomized controlled trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 885-897.