Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$11,278||Benefits minus costs||$30,661|
|Participants||$268||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.29|
|Others||$27,481||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$946||benefits greater than the costs||91 %|
|Net program cost||($9,311)|
|Benefits minus cost||$30,661|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$100||$236||$0||$0||$336|
|Health care associated with major depression||$105||$30||$108||$52||$295|
|Mortality associated with depression||$1||$2||$0||$13||$16|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,656)||($4,656)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$27,863||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($9,311)|
|Comparison costs||$18,232||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of high school^^||15||1||32||-0.126||0.240||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.126||0.601|
|Cannabis use before end of high school^^||15||1||32||-0.230||0.241||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.230||0.340|
|Major depressive disorder||15||1||81||-0.378||0.157||23||0.000||0.310||25||-0.378||0.016|
|Psychosis symptoms (positive)^||15||1||75||-0.364||0.216||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.364||0.091|
|Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^||15||1||78||-0.538||0.187||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.538||0.004|
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