Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$11,457||Benefits minus costs||$31,118|
|Participants||$272||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.30|
|Others||$27,915||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$918||benefits greater than the costs||93%|
|Net program cost||($9,443)|
|Benefits minus cost||$31,118|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^
Becoming pregnant (or getting someone else pregnant) before age 18.
An attempt to die by suicide resulting in survival.
Alcohol use before end of high school^^
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Cannabis use before end of high school^^
Any use of cannabis by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Thinking about and/or planning death by suicide.
Psychosis symptoms (positive)^
Symptoms of psychosis that are experienced in addition to normal function (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, or agitation) measured on a validated scale, for individuals with serious mental illness.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$11,242||$0||$27,805||$5,621||$44,667|
|Major depressive disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$102||$240||$0||($51)||$291|
|Health care associated with major depression||$107||$30||$110||$53||$300|
|Mortality associated with depression||$1||$2||$0||$14||$16|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,722)||($4,722)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$27,863||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($9,443)|
|Comparison costs||$18,232||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Chamberlain, P. (1990). Comparative evaluation of specialized foster care for seriously delinquent youths: A first step. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care, 2(2), 21-36.
Chamberlain, P., Fisher, P.A., & Moore, K. (2002). Multidimensional treatment foster care: Applications of the OSLC intervention model to high-risk youth and their families. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 203-218). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
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