Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$11,437||Benefits minus costs||$31,092|
|Participants||$272||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.29|
|Others||$27,866||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$960||benefits greater than the costs||90 %|
|Net program cost||($9,442)|
|Benefits minus cost||$31,092|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Alcohol use before end of high school^^
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Cannabis use before end of high school^^
Any use of cannabis by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Psychosis symptoms (positive)^
Symptoms of psychosis that are experienced in addition to normal function (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, or agitation) measured on a validated scale, for individuals with serious mental illness.
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
Thinking about and/or planning death by suicide.
An attempt to die by suicide resulting in survival.
Teen pregnancy (under age 18)^
Becoming pregnant (or getting someone else pregnant) before age 18.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$11,222||$0||$27,756||$5,611||$44,589|
|Major depressive disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$102||$239||$0||$0||$341|
|Health care associated with major depression||$107||$30||$110||$53||$301|
|Mortality associated with depression||$1||$2||$0||$13||$16|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,721)||($4,721)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$27,863||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($9,442)|
|Comparison costs||$18,232||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Chamberlain, P. (1990). Comparative evaluation of specialized foster care for seriously delinquent youths: A first step. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care, 2(2), 21-36.
Chamberlain, P., Fisher, P.A., & Moore, K. (2002). Multidimensional treatment foster care: Applications of the OSLC intervention model to high-risk youth and their families. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 203-218). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Kerr, D.C., DeGarmo, D.S., Leve, L.D., & Chamberlain, P. (2014). Juvenile justice girls’ depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation 9 years after multidimensional treatment foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 684-693.
Kerr, D.C., Leve, L.D., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls in two randomized controlled trials of multidimensional treatment foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 588-593.
Poulton, R., Van, R. M.J., Harold, G.T., Chamberlain, P., Fowler, D., Cannon, M., Arseneault, L., & Leve, L.D. (2014). Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care on Psychotic Symptoms in Girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(12), 1279-1287.
Smith, D.K., Chamberlain, P., & Eddy, J.M. (2010). Preliminary support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in reducing substance use in delinquent boys. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19(4), 343-358.
Van Ryzin, M.J., & Leve, L.D. (2012). Affiliation with delinquent peers as a mediator of the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care for delinquent girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 588-96.