|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,158||Benefits minus costs||$12,053|
|Participants||$122||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.25|
|Others||$11,421||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$717||benefits greater than the costs||66 %|
|Net program cost||($5,364)|
|Benefits minus cost||$12,053|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$5,003||$0||$11,307||$2,502||$18,812|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$33||$78||$0||$0||$111|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$110||$17||$113||$55||$295|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$12||$27||$0||$842||$881|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,682)||($2,682)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$5,093||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($5,364)|
|Comparison costs||$1||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
French, M.T., Sacks, S., De Leon, G., Staines, G. & McKendrick, K. (1999). Modified therapeutic community for mentally ill chemical abusers: Outcomes and costs. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 22(1), 60-85.
Sacks, S., McKendrick, K., Sacks, J.A.Y., Banks, S., & Harle, M. (2008). Enhanced outpatient treatment for co-occurring disorders: Main outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 48-60.
Sacks, S., McKendrick, K., Vazan, P., Sacks, J.Y., & Cleland, C.M. (2011). Modified therapeutic community aftercare for clients triply diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Aids Care, 23(12), 1676-1686.
Sacks, S., Sacks, J.Y., McKendrick, K., Banks, S., & Stommel, J. (2004). Modified TC for MICA offenders: Crime outcomes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22(4), 477-501.
Sacks, S., Chaple, M., Sacks, J.Y., McKendrick, K., & Cleland, C.M. (2012). Randomized trial of a reentry modified therapeutic community for offenders with co-occurring disorders: Crime outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 42(3), 247-259.
Sullivan, C.J., Sullivan, C.J., McKendrick, K., Sacks, S., & Banks, S. (2007). Modified therapeutic community treatment for offenders with MICA disorders: Substance use outcomes. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33(6), 823-832.
Van Stelle, K.R., & Moberg, D.P. (2004). Outcome data for MICA clients after participation in an institutional therapeutic community. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 39(1), 37-62.