Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,347||Benefits minus costs||$8,084|
|Participants||$1,912||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.55|
|Others||$16,000||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,585)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($14,590)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,084|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$946||$2,222||$1,230||$0||$4,398|
|Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$16||$3||$18||$8||$46|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$3||$0||$5|
|Costs of higher education||($209)||($317)||($95)||($105)||($725)|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$1||$1||$0||$10||$12|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($7,295)||($7,295)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$14,043||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($14,590)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||15||1||66||-0.066||0.241||16||-0.066||0.241||26||-0.066||0.783|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||15||1||66||0.000||0.246||16||0.000||0.246||26||0.000||1.000|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||15||1||67||-0.156||0.178||15||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.156||0.381|
|Grade point average^||15||1||24||1.405||0.342||23||n/a||n/a||n/a||1.405||0.001|
Borduin, C.M., Schaeffer, C.M., & Heiblum, N. (2009). A randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders: Effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77 (1), 26-37.
Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., McCart, M.R., Chapman, J.E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23 (1), 89-102.
Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., McCart, M.R., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., & Armstrong, K.S. (2013). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology, 27 (6), 978-985.