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Multisystemic Therapy-Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB) for court-involved youth

Juvenile Justice
Benefit-cost methods last updated December 2019.  Literature review updated May 2019.
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Multisystemic Therapy-Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB) is an adaptation of MST that targets youth who have committed sexual offenses. MST-PSB intends to reduce future problem sexual behavior and general criminal behavior. MST-PSB relies on intensive family therapy to identify and solve potential triggers and environmental factors that lead to problem sexual behaviors. The program targets and delivers its curriculum in the environments a youth navigates (i.e., home, school, the community). MST-PSB therapists visit three or more times a week for the average length of treatment, approximately seven months.

In the included studies, youth were classified as moderate or high risk per scores on a validated risk instrument and were either on probation following adjudication or following their release from confinement. In the studies in the analysis that reported demographic information, 48% of participants were youth of color and 3% were female.

We exclude evaluations of Multisystemic Therapy-Substance Abuse, Multisystemic Therapy-Family Integrated Transitions, and Multisystemic Therapy for court-involved youth from this analysis and analyze them separately.

Key Terms

Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.

Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.

Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.

The estimates shown are present value, life cycle benefits and costs. All dollars are expressed in the base year chosen for this analysis (2018). The chance the benefits exceed the costs are derived from a Monte Carlo risk analysis. The details on this, as well as the economic discount rates and other relevant parameters are described in our Technical Documentation.
Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant
Benefits to:
Taxpayers $8,347 Benefits minus costs $8,084
Participants $1,912 Benefit to cost ratio $1.55
Others $16,000 Chance the program will produce
Indirect ($3,585) benefits greater than the costs 59 %
Total benefits $22,674
Net program cost ($14,590)
Benefits minus cost $8,084
1In addition to the outcomes measured in the meta-analysis table, WSIPP measures benefits and costs estimated from other outcomes associated with those reported in the evaluation literature. For example, empirical research demonstrates that high school graduation leads to reduced crime. These associated measures provide a more complete picture of the detailed costs and benefits of the program.

2“Others” includes benefits to people other than taxpayers and participants. Depending on the program, it could include reductions in crime victimization, the economic benefits from a more educated workforce, and the benefits from employer-paid health insurance.

3“Indirect benefits” includes estimates of the net changes in the value of a statistical life and net changes in the deadweight costs of taxation.
Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant
Benefits from changes to:1 Benefits to:
Taxpayers Participants Others2 Indirect3 Total
Crime $7,593 $0 $14,844 $3,796 $26,233
Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation $946 $2,222 $1,230 $0 $4,398
Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence $16 $3 $18 $8 $46
Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence $0 $2 $3 $0 $5
Costs of higher education ($209) ($317) ($95) ($105) ($725)
Mortality associated with alcohol $1 $1 $0 $10 $12
Adjustment for deadweight cost of program $0 $0 $0 ($7,295) ($7,295)
Totals $8,347 $1,912 $16,000 ($3,585) $22,674
Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant
Annual cost Year dollars Summary
Program costs $14,043 2016 Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars) ($14,590)
Comparison costs $0 2016 Cost range (+ or -) 20 %
We estimate the per-participant cost by applying an average monthly cost of Multisystemic Therapy-Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB) to the average length of treatment in the included studies. We estimate a monthly cost for MST-PSB using the cost of a similar program, Multisystemic Therapy (MST). We use the cost and average length of MST in Washington, provided by C. Redman (personal communication, Washington State Juvenile Rehabilitation, April 16, 2019), to estimate a monthly cost. This cost reflects estimates from Barnoski, R. (2009). Providing evidence-based programs with fidelity in Washington State juvenile courts: Cost analysis (Doc. No. 09-12-1201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. We multiply the monthly cost estimate and the average length of MST-PSB in the included studies, approximately 7.2 months.
The figures shown are estimates of the costs to implement programs in Washington. The comparison group costs reflect either no treatment or treatment as usual, depending on how effect sizes were calculated in the meta-analysis. The cost range reported above reflects potential variation or uncertainty in the cost estimate; more detail can be found in our Technical Documentation.
Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)
The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

^WSIPP’s benefit-cost model does not monetize this outcome.

^^WSIPP does not include this outcome when conducting benefit-cost analysis for this program.

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured Treatment age No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
First time ES is estimated Second time ES is estimated
ES SE Age ES SE Age ES p-value
Alcohol use before end of high school 15 1 66 -0.066 0.241 16 -0.066 0.241 26 -0.066 0.783
Cannabis use before end of high school 15 1 66 0.000 0.246 16 0.000 0.246 26 0.000 1.000
Crime 15 2 90 -0.547 0.577 16 -0.547 0.577 24 -0.547 0.343
Externalizing behavior symptoms^^ 15 1 67 -0.156 0.178 15 n/a n/a n/a -0.156 0.381
Grade point average^ 15 1 24 1.405 0.342 23 n/a n/a n/a 1.405 0.001
Internalizing symptoms^^ 15 1 67 -0.121 0.178 15 n/a n/a n/a -0.121 0.496
Out-of-home placement^^ 15 1 66 -0.512 0.277 16 n/a n/a n/a -0.512 0.065
Sex offense^ 15 1 24 -1.332 0.549 16 n/a n/a n/a -1.332 0.015

Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Borduin, C.M., Schaeffer, C.M., & Heiblum, N. (2009). A randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders: Effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77 (1), 26-37.

Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., McCart, M.R., Chapman, J.E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23 (1), 89-102.

Letourneau, E.J., Henggeler, S.W., McCart, M.R., Borduin, C.M., Schewe, P.A., & Armstrong, K.S. (2013). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology, 27 (6), 978-985.