Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,609||Benefits minus costs||$14,531|
|Participants||$558||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.51|
|Others||$13,410||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$95||benefits greater than the costs||74 %|
|Net program cost||($4,141)|
|Benefits minus cost||$14,531|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Percent change in labor market earnings, typically weekly or monthly wages.
Any employment, including part-time work.
The removal of a child from parental care, most often to foster care.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$4,394||$0||$13,077||$2,197||$19,668|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$278||$652||$361||$0||$1,291|
|Costs of higher education||($63)||($95)||($28)||($31)||($217)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,070)||($2,070)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$5,654||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,141)|
|Comparison costs||$1,763||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Darnell, A.J., & Schuler, M.S. (2015). Quasi-experimental study of Functional Family Therapy effectiveness for juvenile justice aftercare in a racially and ethnically diverse community sample. Children and Youth Services Review, 50(3), 75-82.
Lucenko, L. He, Mancuso, D., & Felver, B. (2011). Effects of Functional Family Parole on re-arrest and employment for youth in Washington State. Research Data Analysis Division: Olympia, Washington.
Sexton, T., Rowland, M., & McEnery, A., (2009). Interim outcome evaluation of the Washington State Functional Family Parole Project. Center for Adolescent and Family Studies. Bloomington, Indiana.