|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,133||Benefits minus costs||$12,368|
|Participants||$9,001||Benefit to cost ratio||$15.27|
|Others||$353||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($253)||benefits greater than the costs||90 %|
|Net program cost||($866)|
|Benefits minus cost||$12,368|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$3,790||$8,903||$0||$0||$12,694|
|Health care associated with anxiety disorder||$342||$97||$353||$171||$964|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$10||$10|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($433)||($433)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$834||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($866)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Emergency department visits||43||1||116||-0.097||0.291||44||-0.051||0.356||46||-0.123||0.772|
|Major depressive disorder||43||2||198||-0.109||0.164||44||-0.057||0.201||46||-0.137||0.402|
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Muntingh, A., van der Feltz-Cornelis, C., van Marwijk, H., Spinhoven, P., Assendelft, W., de Waal, M., Ader. A., van Balkom, A. (2014). Effectiveness of collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 37-44.
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Rollman, B.L., Belnap, B.H., Mazumdar, S., Houck, P.R., Zhu, F., Gardner, W., . . . Shear, M.K. (2005). A randomized trial to improve the quality of treatment for panic and generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1332-1341.