|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$12,989||Benefits minus costs||$26,802|
|Participants||$14,311||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.63|
|Others||$7,730||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($850)||benefits greater than the costs||83 %|
|Net program cost||($7,377)|
|Benefits minus cost||$26,802|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$6,377||$14,043||$6,444||$0||$26,864|
|K-12 grade repetition||$403||$0||$0||$203||$606|
|K-12 special education||$2,676||$0||$0||$1,335||$4,011|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$2,148||($585)||($2,330)||$1,082||$315|
|Costs of higher education||($1,317)||($1,118)||($367)||($662)||($3,463)|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with employment||$895||$1,970||$0||$0||$2,865|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,713)||($3,713)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$6,934||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($7,377)|
|Comparison costs||$961||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|High school graduation||4||Primary||2||1184||0.231||0.091||21||0.231||0.091||21||0.231||0.011|
|K-12 grade repetition||4||Primary||4||2023||-0.351||0.068||12||-0.351||0.068||12||-0.351||0.001|
|K-12 special education||4||Primary||3||1670||-0.118||0.193||14||-0.118||0.193||14||-0.118||0.544|
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