|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,984||Benefits minus costs||$8,349|
|Participants||$7,586||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.79|
|Others||$4,002||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,232)||benefits greater than the costs||88%|
|Net program cost||($2,990)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,349|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,229||$7,586||$4,002||($1,615)||$13,202|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$52||$0||$0||$26||$78|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||($297)||$0||$0||($148)||($445)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,495)||($1,495)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,330||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,990)|
|Comparison costs||$6,384||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||25%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Andrews, R.J., Jargowsky, P.A., & Kuhne, K. (2012). The effects of Texas's targeted pre-kindergarten program on academic performance. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Bania, N., Kay, N., Aos, S., & Pennucci, A. (2014). Outcome evaluation of Washington State’s Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (Document No. 14-12-2201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
Barnett, W.S., Frede, E.C., Mobasher, H., & Mohr, P. (1988). The efficacy of public preschool programs and the relationship of program quality to efficacy. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10(1), 37–49.
Frede, E., Jung, K., Barnett, W. S., Lamy, C.E., & Figueras, A. (2007). The Abbott Preschool Program longitudinal effects study (APPLES): Interim report. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research.
Hustedt, J.T., Barnett, W.S., Jung, K. & Thomas, J. (2007). The effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program on young children's school readiness. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research.
Hustedt, J.T., Barnett, W.S., Jung, K., & Figueras-Daniel, A. (2009). Continued impacts of New Mexico pre-k on children's readiness for kindergarten: Results from the third year of implementation. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research.
Lipsey, M.W., Hofer, K.G., Dong, N., Farran, D.C., & Bilbrey, C. (2013). Evaluation of the Tennessee voluntary prekindergarten program: End of pre-K results from the randomized control trial. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, Peabody Research Institute.
Wong, V.C., Cook, B., & Jung, K. (2008). An effectiveness-based evaluation of five state pre-kindergarten programs. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(1), 122-154.
Xiang, Z., & Schweinhart, L.J. (2002). Effects five years later: The Michigan School Readiness Program evaluation through age 10. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation.