|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,938||Benefits minus costs||$9,805|
|Participants||$7,468||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.33|
|Others||$3,939||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,594)||benefits greater than the costs||91 %|
|Net program cost||($2,946)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,805|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,179||$7,468||$3,939||$0||$14,586|
|K-12 grade repetition||$51||$0||$0||$26||$77|
|K-12 special education||($293)||$0||$0||($146)||($439)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,473)||($1,473)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,330||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,946)|
|Comparison costs||$6,384||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|K-12 grade repetition||4||3||274591||-0.043||0.004||8||-0.043||0.004||8||-0.043||0.001|
|K-12 special education||4||3||274605||0.013||0.046||8||0.013||0.046||8||0.013||0.778|
|Office discipline referrals^||4||1||1852||0.033||0.078||8||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.033||0.672|
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