|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$7,694||Benefits minus costs||$12,657|
|Participants||$10,053||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.42|
|Others||$6,704||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,871)||benefits greater than the costs||69 %|
|Net program cost||($8,923)|
|Benefits minus cost||$12,657|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Obese based on clinical guidelines for adults (body mass index of 30 or higher) or children (body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex), as appropriate.
Teen births under age 18
Becoming a parent before age 18.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Any employment, including part-time work.
|29||Secondary||2||1775||0.079||0.094||31||0.000||0.000||32||0.079||0.401||Click to expand||Click to collapse|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1,235||$0||$2,769||$618||$4,622|
|High school graduation||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$3,174||$7,457||$4,067||$0||$14,698|
|Costs of higher education||($665)||($565)||($185)||($332)||($1,747)|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$140||$0||$0||$70||$211|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||$2,419||$0||$0||$1,209||$3,628|
|Major depressive disorder||Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$1||$1|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$58||$16||$60||$29||$164|
|Internalizing symptoms||Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||($7)||($2)||($8)||($4)||($21)|
|Obesity||Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Mortality associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|From secondary participant|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||$1,340||$3,146||$0||$0||$4,486|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,462)||($4,462)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,550||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($8,923)|
|Comparison costs||$4,750||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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