|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,480||Benefits minus costs||$2,521|
|Participants||$5,482||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.68|
|Others||$33||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,776)||benefits greater than the costs||77 %|
|Net program cost||($3,698)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,521|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Any employment, including part-time work.
How well individuals (typically those who are developmentally disabled or seriously mentally ill) have adapted to activities of daily living.
Admission to a psychiatric ward or hospital.
A lack of stable housing, often measured through self-report of conditions like living on streets or in shelters in a given time period.
Mental health symptoms (such as symptoms of psychosis) in individuals with serious mental illness, measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||$2,333||$5,480||$0||$0||$7,813|
|Hospitalization (psychiatric)||Health care associated with psychiatric hospitalization||$147||$2||$33||$73||$255|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,849)||($1,849)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,842||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,698)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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