|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$766||Benefits minus costs||$2,512|
|Participants||$854||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.87|
|Others||$443||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,795||benefits greater than the costs||52 %|
|Net program cost||($1,346)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,512|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
A lack of stable housing, often measured through self-report of conditions like living on streets or in shelters in a given time period.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($99)||($232)||$0||$0||($331)|
|Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($2)||$0||($3)||($1)||($7)|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||($1)||$0||($1)|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$0||$0||($3)||($3)|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Criminal justice system||$1||$0||$2||$0||$4|
|Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$329||$772||$0||$0||$1,100|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$432||$67||$444||$216||$1,159|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$106||$248||$0||$2,256||$2,610|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($673)||($673)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,602||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,346)|
|Comparison costs||$1,358||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Rawson, R.A., Obert, J.L., McCann, M.J., & Mann, A.J. (1985). Cocaine Treatment Outcome: Cocaine Use Following Inpatient, Outpatient, and No Treatment. NIDA Research Monograph, 67, 271-277.
Rawson, R.A., Shoptaw, S.J., Obert, J.L., McCann, M.J., Hasson, A., & Marinelli-Casey, P.J. (1995). An Intensive Outpatient Approach for Cocaine Abuse Treatment: The Matrix Model. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12(2), 117-127.
Rawson, R.A., Marinelli-Casey, P., Anglin, M.D., Dickow, A., Frazier, Y., Gallagher, C., et al. (2004). A Multi-Site Comparison of Psychosocial Approaches for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence. Addiction, 99(6), 708-717.
Rosenblum, A., Magura, S., Palij, M., Foote, J., Handelsman, L., & Stimmel, B. (1999). Enhanced treatment outcomes for cocaine-using methadone patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 54(3), 207-218.