|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$931||Benefits minus costs||$4,600|
|Participants||$1,228||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.39|
|Others||$449||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,845||benefits greater than the costs||57 %|
|Net program cost||($854)|
|Benefits minus cost||$4,600|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
STD risky behavior^
For youth, this outcome includes unprotected sex and other behaviors. For high-risk drug users, this also includes intravenous drug use.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$1||$0||$2|
|Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$370||$870||$0||$0||$1,240|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$436||$68||$448||$218||$1,170|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$124||$291||$0||$3,054||$3,469|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($427)||($427)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$789||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($854)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Avants, S.K., Margolin, A., Usubiaga, M.H. & Doebrick, C. (2004). Targeting HIV-Related Outcomes With Intravenous Drug Users Maintained on Methadone: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Harm Reduction Group Therapy. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 26(2), 67-78.
Margolin, A., Avants, S.K., Warburton, L.A., Hawkins, K.A. & Shi, J. (2003). A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Manual-Guided Risk Reduction Intervention for HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users. Health Psychology, 22(2), 223-228.