|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,636||Benefits minus costs||$9,120|
|Participants||$6,180||Benefit to cost ratio||$9.28|
|Others||$3,271||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,864)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($1,102)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,120|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Smoking before end of middle school
Any smoking of tobacco by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
Cannabis use before end of middle school
Any use of cannabis by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
Alcohol use before end of middle school
Any use of alcohol by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$2,631||$6,180||$3,260||($1,315)||$10,755|
|Smoking before end of middle school||Health care associated with smoking||($1)||$0||($1)||($1)||($3)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||Criminal justice system||$5||$0||$11||$2||$18|
|Health care associated with cannabis abuse or dependence||$1||$0||$1||$0||$3|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($551)||($551)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$623||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,102)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||15 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., Solomon, D., & Lewis, C. (2000). Effects of the child development project on students' drug use and other problem behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(1), 75-99.
Muñoz, M.A., & Vanderhaar, J.E. (2006). Literacy-embedded character education in a large urban district. Journal of Research in Character Education, 4(1&2), 27-44.