|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,798||Benefits minus costs||$8,886|
|Participants||$5,209||Benefit to cost ratio||$197.50|
|Others||$424||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$500||benefits greater than the costs||70 %|
|Net program cost||($45)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,886|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($255)||($599)||($316)||$0||($1,170)|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||$5||$0||$0||$3||$8|
|Health care associated with smoking||$616||$174||$636||$308||$1,734|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$2,391||$5,616||$0||$0||$8,006|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$8||$15||$0||$22|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$5||$11||$0||$194||$209|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($23)||($23)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$23||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($45)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Grade point average^||12||1||500||-0.023||0.152||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.062||0.685|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||12||1||500||-0.019||0.152||16||-0.019||0.152||18||-0.050||0.743|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.129||0.208||13||-0.129||0.208||13||-0.341||0.101|
|Alcohol use disorder||12||1||488||-0.187||0.154||22||-0.187||0.154||32||-0.491||0.002|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||12||1||500||-0.046||0.152||16||-0.046||0.152||18||-0.120||0.431|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.112||0.208||13||-0.112||0.208||13||-0.294||0.157|
|Cannabis use disorder||12||1||488||-0.091||0.154||22||-0.091||0.154||32||-0.238||0.123|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||12||2||6957||-0.009||0.017||13||-0.005||0.011||16||-0.010||0.584|
|Major depressive disorder||12||2||438||-0.081||0.190||14||0.000||0.310||16||-0.111||0.558|
|Smoking before end of high school||12||1||500||-0.052||0.152||16||-0.052||0.152||18||-0.138||0.367|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.193||0.208||13||-0.193||0.208||13||-0.507||0.015|
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