Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$34,067||Benefits minus costs||$140,361|
|Participants||$3,846||Benefit to cost ratio||$18.75|
|Others||$98,236||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$12,121||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($7,910)|
|Benefits minus cost||$140,361|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$32,583||$0||$95,940||$16,292||$144,815|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,916||$4,501||$2,493||$0||$8,910|
|Costs of higher education||($432)||($654)||($196)||($216)||($1,499)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,955)||($3,955)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,508||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($7,910)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Barton, C., Alexander, J.F., Waldron, H., Turner, C W., & Warburton, J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effects of functional family therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13(3), 16-26.
Gordon, D.A. (1995). Functional Family Therapy for delinquents. In R. R. Ross, D. H. Antonowicz, & G. K. Dhaliwal (Eds.), Going straight: Effective delinquency prevention & offender rehabilitation (pp. 163-178). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: AIR Training Publications.