Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$34,128||Benefits minus costs||$139,652|
|Participants||$3,853||Benefit to cost ratio||$18.63|
|Others||$98,409||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$11,184||benefits greater than the costs||100%|
|Net program cost||($7,921)|
|Benefits minus cost||$139,652|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$32,641||$0||$96,109||$16,321||$145,070|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,919||$4,509||$2,497||($960)||$7,965|
|Costs of higher education||($433)||($656)||($197)||($216)||($1,502)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($3,961)||($3,961)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$7,508||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($7,921)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Barton, C., Alexander, J.F., Waldron, H., Turner, C W., & Warburton, J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effects of functional family therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13(3), 16-26.
Gordon, D.A. (1995). Functional Family Therapy for delinquents. In R. R. Ross, D. H. Antonowicz, & G. K. Dhaliwal (Eds.), Going straight: Effective delinquency prevention & offender rehabilitation (pp. 163-178). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: AIR Training Publications.