Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,547||Benefits minus costs||$15,993|
|Participants||$464||Benefit to cost ratio||$52.59|
|Others||$10,789||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,503||benefits greater than the costs||68 %|
|Net program cost||($310)|
|Benefits minus cost||$15,993|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$231||$542||$300||$0||$1,073|
|Costs of higher education||($52)||($78)||($23)||($26)||($179)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($155)||($155)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$310||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($310)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||16||1||46||-0.542||0.268||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.542||0.029|
Bottcher, J. (1985). The Athena Program: An evaluation of a girl’s treatment program at the Fresno County Probation Department’s Juvenile Hall. Sacramento: California Youth Authority.
Hubbard, D.J., & Latessa, E.J. (2004). Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: A look at outcome and responsivity in five treatment programs (Final report). Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, Division of Criminal Justice, Center for Criminal Justice Research.
Rohde, P., Jorgensen, J.S., Seeley, J.R., & Mace, D.E. (2004). Pilot evaluation of the coping course: A cognitive-behavioral intervention to enhance coping skills in incarcerated youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43 (6), 669-676.