Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$731||Benefits minus costs||$2,761|
|Participants||$163||Benefit to cost ratio||$53.66|
|Others||$1,621||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$299||benefits greater than the costs||67 %|
|Net program cost||($52)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,761|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Cannabis use disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of cannabis use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Criminal offenses that are drug-related (e.g., illegal drug possession or drug trafficking).
Problem alcohol use^^
Alcohol use reflecting problem behaviors (e.g., high frequency drinking, binge drinking, or drinking that has a high impact on daily life) for individuals who do not have an alcohol use disorder.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$668||$0||$1,523||$334||$2,525|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$81||$191||$106||$0||$378|
|Costs of higher education||($18)||($27)||($8)||($9)||($63)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($26)||($26)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$6,611||2004||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($52)|
|Comparison costs||$6,571||2004||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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