|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$168||Benefits minus costs||$574|
|Participants||$303||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.74|
|Others||$101||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$102||benefits greater than the costs||55 %|
|Net program cost||($100)|
|Benefits minus cost||$574|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Loss or gain of total body weight
Diastolic blood pressure^
The blood pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. This is the second (or bottom) number in a blood pressure reading.
Systolic blood pressure^
The blood pressure in the arteries when the heart beats. This is the first (or top) number in a blood pressure reading.
Obese based on clinical guidelines for adults (body mass index of 30 or higher) or children (body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex), as appropriate.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Obesity||Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$116||$273||$0||$0||$390|
|Health care associated with obesity||$48||$22||$101||$24||$196|
|Mortality associated with obesity||$3||$8||$0||$128||$139|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($50)||($50)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$94||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($100)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Appel, L.J., Clark, J.M., Yeh, H.C., Wang, N.Y., Coughlin, J.W., Daumit, G., Miller, E.R., Dalcin, A., Jerome, G., Geller, S., Noronha, G., Pozefsky, T., Charleston, J., Reynolds., Durkin, N., Rubin, R., Louis, T.A., & Brancati, F.L. (2011). Comparative effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in clinical practice. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(21), 1959-1968.
Bennett, G.G., Herring, S.J., Puleo, E., Stein, E.K., Emmons, K.M., & Gillman, M.W. (2010). Web-based weight loss in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (silver Spring, Md.), 18(2), 308-313.
Bennett, G.G., Warner, E.T., Glasgow, R.E., Askew, S., Goldman, J., Ritzwoller, D.P., Emmons, K.M., ... Be Fit, Be Well Study Investigators. (2012). Obesity treatment for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients in primary care practice. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(7), 565-574.
Bennett, G.G., Foley, P., Levine, E., Whiteley, J., Askew, S., Steinberg, D.M., Batch, B., Greaney, M.L., Miranda, H., Wroth, T.H., Holder, M.G., Emmons, K.M., & Puleo, E. (2013). Behavioral treatment for weight gain prevention among black women in primary care practice. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(19), 1770-1777.
Haapala, I., Barengo, N.C., Biggs, S., Surakka, L., & Manninen, P. (2009). Weight loss by mobile phone: a 1-year effectiveness study. Public Health Nutrition, 12(12), 2382-2391.
Logue, E., Sutton, K., Jarjoura, D., Smucker, W., Baughman, K., & Capers, C. (2005). Transtheoretical model-chronic disease care for obesity in primary care: a randomized trial. Obesity Research, 13(5), 917-927.
Tate, D.F., Wing, R.R., & Winett, R.A. (2001). Using Internet technology to deliver a behavioral weight loss program. JAMA, 285(9), 1172-1177.
Tate, D.F., Jackvony, E.H., & Wing, R.R. (2006). A randomized trial comparing human e-mail counseling, computer-automated tailored counseling, and no counseling in an Internet weight loss program. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(15), 1620-1625.
Werkman, A., Hulshof, P.J.M., Stafleu, A., Kremers, S.P.J., Kok, F.J., Schouten, E.G., & Schuit, A.J. (2010). Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 10(1).