|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$13||Benefits minus costs||($205)|
|Participants||$6||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.19)|
|Others||$28||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($79)||benefits greater than the costs||47 %|
|Net program cost||($173)|
|Benefits minus cost||($205)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Obese based on clinical guidelines for adults (body mass index of 30 or higher) or children (body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex), as appropriate.
Loss or gain of total body weight
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Obesity||Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with obesity||$13||$6||$28||$7||$53|
|Mortality associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$1||$1|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($86)||($86)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$162||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($173)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Balagopal, P., George, D., Yarandi, H., Funanage, V., & Bayne, E. (2005). Reversal of obesity-related hypoadiponectinemia by lifestyle intervention: a controlled, randomized study in obese adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(11), 6192-7.
Danielsen, Y.S., Hordhus, I.H., Juliusson, P.B., Maehle, M., & Pallesen, S. (2013). Effect of a family-based cognitive behavioural intervention on body mass index, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in children with obesity (aged 7-13): A randomised waiting list controlled trial. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice, 7(16), e116-e128.
Epstein, L.H., Roemmich, J.N., Robinson, J.L., Paluch, R.A., Winiewicz, D.D., Fuerch, J.H., & Robinson, T.N. (2008). A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(3), 239-45.
Flodmark, C., Ohlsson, T., Rydén, O., & Sveger, T. (1993). Prevention of progression to severe obesity in a group of obese schoolchildren treated with family therapy. Pediatrics, 91(5), 880-884.
Golley, R.K., Magarey, A.M., Baur, L.A., Steinbeck, K.S., & Daniels, L.A. (2007). Twelve-month effectiveness of a parent-led, family-focused weight-management program for prepubertal children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 119(3), 517-525.
Janicke, D.M., Sallinen, B.J., Perri, M.G., Lutes, L.D., Huerta, M., Silverstein, J.H., & Brumback, B. (2008). Comparison of parent-only vs family-based interventions for overweight children in underserved rural settings: outcomes from project STORY. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(12), 1119-1125.
Kitzman-Ulrich, H., Hampson, R., Wilson, D.K., Presnell, K., Brown, A., & O'Boyle, M. (2009). An adolescent weight-loss program integrating family variables reduces energy intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(3), 491-6.
Mårild, S., Gronowitz, E., Forsell, C., Dahlgren, J., & Friberg, P. (2013). A controlled study of lifestyle treatment in primary care for children with obesity. Pediatric Obesity, 8(3), 207-217.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L. A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. ... Waters, E. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
O'Connor, T.M., Hilmers, A., Watson, K., Baranowski, T., & Giardino, A.P. (2013). Feasibility of an obesity intervention for paediatric primary care targeting parenting and children: Helping HAND. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(1), 141-149.
Rocchini, A.P., Katch, V., Anderson, J., Hinderliter, J., Becque, D., Martin, M., & Marks, C. (1988). Blood pressure in obese adolescents: effect of weight loss. Pediatrics, 82(1), 16-23.
Senediak, C., & Spence, S. H. (1985). Rapid versus gradual scheduling of therapeutic contact in a family based behavioural weight control programme for children. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 13, 265-287.
Taveras, E.M., Gortmaker, S.L., Hohman, K.H., Horan, C.M., Kleinman, K.P., Mitchell, K., Price, S., ... Gillman, M.W. (2011). Randomized controlled trial to improve primary care to prevent and manage childhood obesity: the High Five for Kids study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(8), 714-22.
Wake, M. B., Baur, L.A., Gerner, B., Gibbons, K. Gold, L., Gunn, J., ... Ukoumunne, O.C. (2009). Outcomes and costs of primary care surveillance and intervention for overweight or obese children: The LEAP 2 randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 339:b3308, doi. 10.1136/bmj.b3308.
West, F., Sanders, M. R., Cleghorn, G. J., & Davies, P. S. W. (2010). Randomised clinical trial of a family-based lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity involving parents as the exclusive agents of change. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(12), 1170-1179.