|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,213||Benefits minus costs||($982)|
|Participants||$533||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.90|
|Others||$5,794||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,437)||benefits greater than the costs||43 %|
|Net program cost||($10,086)|
|Benefits minus cost||($982)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Emergency department visits
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Hospitalization||Health care associated with general hospitalization||$3,863||$167||$3,808||$1,932||$9,769|
|Emergency department visits||Health care associated with emergency department visits||$1,350||$367||$1,986||$675||$4,377|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,043)||($5,043)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,730||2001||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($10,086)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2001||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Shah, R., Chen, C., O'Rourke, S., Lee, M., Mohanty, S.A., & Abraham, J. (2011). Evaluation of care management for the uninsured. Medical Care, 49(2), 166-171.
Shumway, M., Boccellari, A., O'Brien, K., & Okin, R.L. (2008). Cost-effectiveness of clinical case management for ED frequent users: results of a randomized trial. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 26(2), 155-164.