|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$203||Benefits minus costs||$436|
|Participants||$103||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.50|
|Others||$189||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$66||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($125)|
|Benefits minus cost||$436|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$34||$79||$43||$43||$200|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||$47||$0||$0||$23||$70|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$114||$32||$118||$57||$321|
|Costs of higher education||($5)||($8)||($2)||($3)||($19)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($62)||($62)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$117||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($125)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||6||1||3637||-0.108||0.024||6||0.000||0.141||7||-0.108||0.001|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||6||3||4214||-0.060||0.041||7||-0.033||0.028||10||-0.060||0.172|
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