|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$168||Benefits minus costs||$345|
|Participants||$86||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.78|
|Others||$158||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$24||benefits greater than the costs||84 %|
|Net program cost||($91)|
|Benefits minus cost||$345|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Social and emotional development^
A broad range of skills relevant to self, emotion, and relationships. These skills are typically measured through validated assessments that measure self-awareness, social competence, and self-control.
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$12||$0||$26||$6||$44|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$28||$67||$36||$0||$131|
|K-12 special education||$37||$0||$0||$18||$55|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$94||$27||$97||$47||$265|
|Costs of higher education||($5)||($7)||($2)||($2)||($16)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($46)||($46)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$90||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($91)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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