|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$53||Benefits minus costs||($971)|
|Participants||$22||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.31)|
|Others||$47||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($351)||benefits greater than the costs||21 %|
|Net program cost||($741)|
|Benefits minus cost||($971)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$5||$0||$12||$3||$21|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$13||$31||$17||($7)||$55|
|K-12 special education||$17||$0||$0||$9||$26|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$44||$13||$46||$22||$125|
|Costs of higher education||($2)||($3)||($1)||($1)||($8)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||($1)||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||($19)||($5)||($20)||($10)||($54)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($367)||($394)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$715||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($741)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2017||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Sheridan, S.M., Bovaird, J.A., Glover, T.A., Garbacz, S.A., Witte, A., & Kwon, K. (2012). A randomized trial examining the effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation and the mediating role of the parent-teacher relationship. School Psychology Review, 41(1), 23-46.
Sheridan, S.M., Witte, A.L., Holmes, S.R., Coutts, M.J., Dent, A.L., Kunz, G.M., & Wu, C.R. (2017). A randomized trial examining the effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in rural schools: Student outcomes and the mediating role of the teacher–parent relationship. Journal of School Psychology, 61(2), 33-53.
Sheridan, S.M., Witte, A.L., Holmes, S.R., Wu, C., Bhatia, S.A., & Angell, S.R. (2017). The efficacy of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in the home setting: Outcomes and mechanisms in rural communities. Journal of School Psychology, 62, 81-101.