|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,230||Benefits minus costs||$2,403|
|Participants||$1,163||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.13|
|Others||$2,858||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($719)||benefits greater than the costs||74 %|
|Net program cost||($2,128)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,403|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$813||$0||$2,199||$407||$3,419|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$540||$1,267||$694||$0||$2,501|
|Costs of higher education||($123)||($105)||($34)||($62)||($324)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,064)||($1,064)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,000||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,128)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Heller, S.B., Shah, A.K., Guryan, J., Ludwig, J., Mullainathan, S., & Pollack, H.A. (2015). Thinking, fast and slow?: Some field experiments to reduce crime and dropout in Chicago (NBER Working Paper 21178). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.