|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6||Benefits minus costs||($348)|
|Participants||$2||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.44)|
|Others||$5||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($118)||benefits greater than the costs||51 %|
|Net program cost||($243)|
|Benefits minus cost||($348)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Nonspecified substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, or illicit drugs) that does not rise to the level of "disordered."
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Major depressive disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with major depression||$4||$1||$5||$2||$13|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$1||$1|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($121)||($121)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$234||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($243)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2017||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Rohde, P., Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Gau, J.M. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention compared to bibliotherapy and brochure control: nonsignificant effects in pilot effectiveness trial with college students. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 55, 48-53.
Rohde, P., Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Gau, J.M. (2014). Effectiveness trial of an indicated cognitive-behavioral group adolescent depression prevention program versus bibliotherapy and brochure control at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Unpublished Manuscript.
Stice, E., Burton, E., Bearman, S.K., & Rohde, P. (2006). Randomized trial of a brief depression prevention program: An elusive search for a psychosocial placebo control condition. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(5), 863-876.
Stice, E., Rohde, P., Seeley, J.R., & Gau, J.M. (2008). Brief cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents outperforms two alternative interventions: A randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(4), 595-606.