|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,862||Benefits minus costs||$5,740|
|Participants||$2,192||Benefit to cost ratio||$9.30|
|Others||$2,248||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$129||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($692)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,740|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$653||$0||$1,481||$327||$2,461|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||K-12 special education||$50||$0||$0||$25||$75|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$122||$34||$125||$61||$342|
|Internalizing symptoms||Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($6)||($13)||($7)||$0||($26)|
|K-12 grade repetition||($1)||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with internalizing symptoms||($17)||($5)||($18)||($9)||($48)|
|Costs of higher education||$1||$1||$0||$0||$3|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$546||$1,282||$0||$0||$1,828|
|Health care associated with major depression||$178||$50||$184||$89||$501|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$13||$14|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($377)||$1,283|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$619||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($692)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Bjørknes, R., & Manger, T. (2013). Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children? A randomized controlled trial. Prevention, 14(1), 52-63.
Kjøbli, J., Hukkelberg, S., & Ogden, T. (2013). A randomized trial of group parent training: Reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(3), 113-121.
Kjøbli, J., & Ogden, T. (2012). A randomized effectiveness trial of brief parent training in primary care settings. Prevention Science, 13(6), 616-626.
Ogden, T. & Hagen, K.A. (2008). Treatment effectiveness of Parent Management Training in Norway: A randomized controlled trial of children with conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 607-621.
Sigmarsdottir, M., Thorlacius, O., Guomundsdottir, E.V., & DeGarmo, D.S. (2014). Treatment effectiveness of PMTO for children's behavior problems in Iceland: Child outcomes in a randomized controlled trial. Family Process, 54, 498-517.
Thijssen, J., Vink, G., Muris, P., & de Ruiter, C. (2017). The effectiveness of Parent Management Training - Oregon Model in clinically referred children with externalizing behavior problems in the Netherlands Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 48, 136-150.