|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,837||Benefits minus costs||$8,544|
|Participants||$2,921||Benefit to cost ratio||$14.12|
|Others||$2,897||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$540||benefits greater than the costs||74 %|
|Net program cost||($651)|
|Benefits minus cost||$8,544|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
In-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, or expulsions from school
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|null||Criminal justice system||$143||$0||$345||$72||$560|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,106||$2,598||$1,370||$0||$5,074|
|K-12 special education||$443||$0||$0||$221||$664|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$1,145||$324||$1,181||$572||$3,222|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($326)||($326)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$207||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($651)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Bradshaw, C.P., Waasdorp, T.E., & Leaf, P.J. (2012). Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), 1136-45.
Gage, N.A., Sugai, G., Lewis, T.J., & Brzozowy, S. (2015). Academic achievement and School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 25(4), 199-209.
Sørlie, M.A., & Ogden, T. (2015). School-Wide Positive Behavior Support-Norway: Impacts on problem behavior and classroom climate. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 3(3), 202-217.
Ward, B., & Gersten, R. (2013). A randomized evaluation of the Safe and Civil Schools model for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports at elementary schools in a large urban school district. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 317-333.