|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,091||Benefits minus costs||$1,101|
|Participants||$630||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.83|
|Others||$945||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($233)||benefits greater than the costs||69 %|
|Net program cost||($1,333)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,101|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$223||$524||$286||$0||$1,032|
|K-12 grade repetition||$7||$0||$0||$3||$10|
|K-12 special education||$289||$0||$0||$144||$433|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$576||$163||$594||$288||$1,621|
|Costs of higher education||($37)||($56)||($17)||($18)||($128)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($667)||($667)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,205||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,333)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||8||Primary||6||417||-0.183||0.075||8||-0.101||0.063||11||-0.199||0.007|
|Major depressive disorder^^||8||Primary||1||37||-0.030||0.236||8||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.057||0.808|
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