Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,324||Benefits minus costs||$6,741|
|Participants||$384||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$2,641||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,112||benefits greater than the costs||100%|
|Net program cost||$1,281|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,741|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1,176||$0||$2,412||$588||$4,176|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$191||$448||$248||($95)||$792|
|Costs of higher education||($43)||($65)||($19)||($21)||($148)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$640||$640|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$312||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$1,281|
|Comparison costs||$1,510||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20%|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Cannon, A., & Stanford, R.M. (1981). Evaluation of the juvenile alternative services project. Tallahassee, FL: Office of Children, Youth and Families.
Crofoot, J.A. (1987). A juvenile diversion program's effectiveness with varying levels of offender severity. Doctoral dissertation, United State International University. Dissertation Abstracts International No. 8713047.
Dunford, F.W., Osgood, D.W, & Weichselbaum, H.F. (1982). National evaluation of diversion projects, Final Report. U.S. Department of Justice.
Howard, W.L. (1997). The effects of tutoring, counseling and mentoring on altering the behavior of African American males in a juvenile diversion program. Dissertation: UMI 9717719.
Klein, M.W. (1986). Labeling theory and delinquency policy: an experimental test. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13(1) 47-79.
Koch, J.R. (1986). Community service and outright release as alternatives to juvenile court: An experimental evaluation (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(07), 2081A. (University Microfilms No. 85-20537).
Lipsey, M.W., Cordray, D.S., & Berger, D.E. (1981). Evaluation of a juvenile diversion program using multiple lines of evidence. Evaluation Review, 5(3), 283-306.
Quay, H.C., & Love, C.T. (1977). The effect of a juvenile diversion program on rearrests. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 4, 377-396.
Reich, W.A., Farley, E.J., Rempel, M., & Lambson, S.H. (2014). The criminal justice response to 16- and 17-year-old defendants in New York. New York, NY: Center for Court Innovation.
Seroczynski, A.D., Evans, W.N., Jobst, A.D., Horvath, L., & Carozza, G. (2015). Reading for Life and adolescent re-arrest: Evaluating a unique juvenile diversion program. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 35 (3), 662-682.
Severy, L.J., & Whitaker, J.M. (1982). Juvenile diversion: An experimental analysis of effectiveness. Evaluation Review, 6(6), 753-774.
Smith, P., Bohnstedt, M., & Tompkins, T. (1979). Juvenile diversion evaluation - Report of an experimental study (from Pretrial Services Annual Journal, P 118-140, 1979, by D Alan Henry - See NCJ-69868). United States.
Stratton, J.G. (1975). Effects of crisis intervention counseling on predelinquent and misdemeanor juvenile offenders. Juvenile Justice, 26(4), 7-18.