Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$7,624||Benefits minus costs||$34,221|
|Participants||$1,462||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$17,531||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$4,834||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||$2,770|
|Benefits minus cost||$34,221|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Externalizing behavior symptoms^^
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$7,060||$0||$16,659||$3,530||$27,248|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$727||$1,708||$945||$0||$3,380|
|Costs of higher education||($162)||($246)||($74)||($81)||($563)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$1,385||$1,385|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,769||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$2,770|
|Comparison costs||$5,372||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Early, K.W., Chapman, S.F., & Hand, G.A. (2013). Family-focused juvenile reentry services: A quasi-experimental design evaluation of recidivism outcomes. OJJDP Journal of Juvenile Justice, 2(2), 1-22.
Karam, E.A., Sterrett, E.M., & Kiaer, L. (2015). The integration of family and group therapy as an alternative to juvenile incarceration: A quasi-experimental evaluation using Parenting with Love and Limits. Family Process,56(2), 331-347.
Sells, S.P., Early, K.W., & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders: An experimental design using the Parenting with Love and Limits model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice, 6(3-4), 9-30.