Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,615||Benefits minus costs||$7,008|
|Participants||$509||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.17|
|Others||$6,022||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$74||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($2,213)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,008|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$253||$595||$329||$0||$1,178|
|Costs of higher education||($57)||($86)||($26)||($28)||($196)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,106)||($1,106)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,130||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,213)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms^^||16||1||50||0.431||0.208||17||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.431||0.038|
|High school graduation^^||16||1||50||-0.382||0.367||18||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.382||0.299|
|Illicit drug use^||16||1||50||0.034||0.203||17||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.034||0.866|
|Problem alcohol use^^||16||1||50||-0.057||0.203||17||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.057||0.780|
Gruenewald, P.J., Laurence, S.E., & West, B.R. (1985). National evaluation of the New Pride replication program, final report - Volume II: Client impact evaluation. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE).
Quay, H.C., & Love, C.T. (1977). The effect of a juvenile diversion program on rearrests. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 4, 377-396.
Schaeffer, C.M., Henggeler, S.W., Ford, J.D., Mann, M., Chang, R., & Chapman, J.E. (2014). RCT of a promising vocational/employment program for high-risk juvenile offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46 (2), 134-143.