|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,178||Benefits minus costs||$12,947|
|Participants||$3,423||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.02|
|Others||$8,947||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($314)||benefits greater than the costs||86 %|
|Net program cost||($4,288)|
|Benefits minus cost||$12,947|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$2,764||$0||$6,318||$1,382||$10,463|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,519||$3,568||$1,949||$0||$7,035|
|Costs of higher education||($238)||($360)||($108)||($119)||($825)|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$10||$0||$0||$5||$15|
|K-12 special education||$359||$0||$0||$180||$539|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$764||$216||$789||$382||$2,151|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,144)||($2,144)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,817||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,288)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Augimeri, L.K., Farrington, D.P., Koegl, C.J., & Day, D.M. (2007). The SNAP™ Under 12 Outreach Project: Effects of a community based program for children with conduct problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(6), 799-807.
Burke, J.D., & Loeber, R. (2015). The Effectiveness of the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program for boys at risk for violence and delinquency. Prevention Science, 16(2), 242-253.
Pepler, D., Walsh, M., Yuile, A., Levene, K., Jiang, D., Vaughan, A., & Webber, J. (2010). Bridging the gender gap: interventions with aggressive girls and their parents. Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 11(3), 229-38.