|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$989||Benefits minus costs||$2,774|
|Participants||$2,071||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.86|
|Others||$210||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($92)||benefits greater than the costs||61 %|
|Net program cost||($405)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,774|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Cannabis use before end of high school
Any use of cannabis by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
Problem alcohol use
Alcohol use reflecting problem behaviors (e.g., high frequency drinking, binge drinking, or drinking that has a high impact on daily life) for individuals who do not have an alcohol use disorder.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Problem alcohol use||Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||$870||$2,045||$0||$0||$2,915|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||$7||$13||$0||$20|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||$72||$13||$79||$36||$200|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||$3||$7||$0||$52||$62|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||Criminal justice system||$44||$0||$117||$22||$184|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($202)||($202)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$379||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($405)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Winters, K. C., & Leitten, W. (2007). Brief intervention for drug-abusing adolescents in a school setting. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 249-54.
Winters, K.C., Fahnhorst, T., Botzet, A., Lee, S., & Lalone, B. (2012). Brief intervention for drug-abusing adolescents in a school setting: Outcomes and mediating factors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 42(3), 279-288.