|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$444||Benefits minus costs||$280|
|Participants||$230||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.38|
|Others||$422||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($84)||benefits greater than the costs||58 %|
|Net program cost||($731)|
|Benefits minus cost||$280|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$76||$180||$98||$98||$452|
|K-12 grade repetition||$8||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|K-12 special education||$94||$0||$0||$47||$141|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$247||$70||$255||$124||$696|
|Costs of higher education||($13)||($20)||($6)||($7)||($45)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($365)||($365)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$716||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($731)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2017||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||10||10||694||-0.133||0.069||11||-0.073||0.052||14||-0.310||0.022|
|Grade point average^||10||2||351||0.047||0.104||13||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.123||0.239|
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