|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$594||Benefits minus costs||$723|
|Participants||$949||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.95|
|Others||$206||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($267)||benefits greater than the costs||54 %|
|Net program cost||($759)|
|Benefits minus cost||$723|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use before end of middle school
Any use of alcohol by the end of middle school, typically by age 13.
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||Criminal justice system||$25||$0||$58||$12||$95|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|K-12 special education||$40||$0||$0||$20||$60|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$118||$33||$121||$59||$331|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$315||$739||$0||$0||$1,054|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$2||$0||$3|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$1||$0||$7||$8|
|From secondary participant|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$71||$168||$0||$0||$239|
|Health care associated with major depression||$23||$7||$24||$12||$65|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$2||$2|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($379)||($379)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$713||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($759)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Beach, S.R., Kogan, S.M., Brody, G.H., Chen, Y.F., Lei, M.K., & Murry, V.M. (2008). Change in caregiver depression as a function of the Strong African American Families Program. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(2), 241-52.
Brody, G.H., Kogan, S.M., Chen, Y.F., & Murry, V.M. (2008). Long-term effects of the Strong African American Families program on youths' conduct problems. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(5), 474-481.
Brody, G.H., Chen, Y.F., Kogan, S.M., Murry, V.M., & Brown, A.C. (2010). Long-term effects of the Strong African American Families program on youths' alcohol use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2) 281-5.