|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$582||Benefits minus costs||$1,147|
|Participants||$1,198||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.04|
|Others||$140||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($212)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($562)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,147|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use before end of high school
Any use of alcohol by the end of high school, typically between ages 14 and 18.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Problem alcohol use
Alcohol use reflecting problem behaviors (e.g., high frequency drinking, binge drinking, or drinking that has a high impact on daily life) for individuals who do not have an alcohol use disorder.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Major depressive disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|Problem alcohol use||Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||$504||$1,184||$0||$0||$1,688|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||$4||$7||$0||$10|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||$39||$7||$43||$19||$108|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||$2||$4||$0||$30||$36|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||Criminal justice system||$37||$0||$91||$18||$146|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($281)||($281)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$528||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($562)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Brody, G.H., Chen, Y.F., Kogan, S.M., Yu, T., Molgaard, V.K., DiClemente, R.J., Wingood, G.M. (2012). Family-centered program deters substance use, conduct problems, and depressive symptoms in black adolescents. Pediatrics, 129(1), 108-15.
Ingels, J.B., Corso,P.S., Kogan, S.M., Brody, G.H. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of the Strong African American Families-teen program: 1-year follow-up. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 556-561.