|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$32||Benefits minus costs||($4,934)|
|Participants||$98||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.35)|
|Others||$50||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,465)||benefits greater than the costs||35 %|
|Net program cost||($3,649)|
|Benefits minus cost||($4,934)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Cannabis use disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of cannabis use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Substance use disorder^
A non-specified alcohol or drug use disorder. Typically, a collection of different types of disorders reported by study authors.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$20||$48||$0||$0||$68|
|Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$64||$12||$71||$32||$178|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$8||$16||$0||$24|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$22||$52||$0||$365||$439|
|Major depressive disorder||K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||($11)||$0||($29)||($6)||($46)|
|K-12 special education||($8)||$0||$0||($4)||($12)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||($76)||($22)||($79)||($38)||($215)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,815)||($1,723)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,134||2008||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,649)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2008||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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Stanton, M.D. & Shadish, W.R. (1997). Outcome, attrition, and family-couples treatment for drug abuse: A meta-analysis and review of the controlled, comparative studies. Psychological Bulletin, 122(5), 170-191.
Waldron, H.B., Slesnick, N., Brody, J.L., Turner, C.W., & Peterson, T.R. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4- and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 802-813.