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Non-Medicaid enhanced prenatal care programs for African-American women

Health Care: Maternal and Infant Health
  Literature review updated December 2016.
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Non-Medicaid enhanced prenatal care programs for African-American women provide psychosocial support and health education regarding risk reduction. Some programs also include case management and nutritional counseling. Services are provided by paraprofessionals or nurses. Participants typically receive the program for five months, including prenatal and postpartum services. All women in treatment and comparison groups receive clinical prenatal care (treatment as usual).

Meta-analysis is a statistical method to combine the results from separate studies on a program, policy, or topic in order to estimate its effect on an outcome. WSIPP systematically evaluates all credible evaluations we can locate on each topic. The outcomes measured are the types of program impacts that were measured in the research literature (for example, crime or educational attainment). Treatment N represents the total number of individuals or units in the treatment group across the included studies.

An effect size (ES) is a standard metric that summarizes the degree to which a program or policy affects a measured outcome. If the effect size is positive, the outcome increases. If the effect size is negative, the outcome decreases. See Estimating Program Effects Using Effect Sizes for additional information.

Adjusted effect sizes are used to calculate the benefits from our benefit cost model. WSIPP may adjust effect sizes based on methodological characteristics of the study. For example, we may adjust effect sizes when a study has a weak research design or when the program developer is involved in the research. The magnitude of these adjustments varies depending on the topic area.

WSIPP may also adjust the second ES measurement. Research shows the magnitude of some effect sizes decrease over time. For those effect sizes, we estimate outcome-based adjustments which we apply between the first time ES is estimated and the second time ES is estimated. We also report the unadjusted effect size to show the effect sizes before any adjustments have been made. More details about these adjustments can be found in our Technical Documentation.

Meta-Analysis of Program Effects
Outcomes measured No. of effect sizes Treatment N Adjusted effect size(ES) and standard error(SE) Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)
ES SE Age ES p-value
0 1 214 0.061 0.107 31 0.061 0.571
0 6 2103 0.002 0.064 31 0.002 0.971

Citations Used in the Meta-Analysis

Herman, A.A., Berendes, H.W., Yu, K.F., Cooper, L.C., Overpeck, M.D., Rhoads, G., . . . Coates, D.L. (1996). Evaluation of the effectiveness of a community-based enriched model prenatal intervention project in the District of Columbia. Health Services Research, 31(5), 609-21.

Klerman, L.V., Ramey, S.L., Goldenberg, R.L., Marbury, S., Hou, J., & Cliver, S.P. (2001). A randomized trial of augmented prenatal care for multiple-risk, Medicaid-eligible African American women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(1), 105-11.

Norbeck, J.S., DeJoseph, J.F., & Smith, R.T. (1996). A randomized trial of an empirically-derived social support intervention to prevent low birthweight among African American women. Social Science & Medicine, 43(6), 947-954.

Peoples, M.D., Grimson, R.C., & Daughtry, G.L. (1984). Evaluation of the effects of the North Carolina Improved Pregnancy Outcome Project: implications for state-level decision-making. American Journal of Public Health, 74(6), 549-54.