|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$484||Benefits minus costs||$1,113|
|Participants||$1,171||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.35|
|Others||$863||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($580)||benefits greater than the costs||51 %|
|Net program cost||($825)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,113|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Enroll in 2-year college
Enroll in a 2-year higher education institution.
Enroll in 4-year college
Enroll in a 4-year higher education institution.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|High school graduation||Criminal justice system||($24)||$0||($59)||($12)||($95)|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($2,333)||($5,481)||($3,005)||$0||($10,820)|
|Costs of higher education||$394||$597||$179||$197||$1,367|
|Enroll in 2-year college||Labor market earnings associated with higher education||$3,152||$7,405||$4,173||$0||$14,730|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($765)||($3,244)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$708||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($825)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Bos, J.M., Berman, J., Kane, T.J., & Tseng, F.M. (2012). The impacts of SOURCE: A program to support college enrollment through near-peer, low-cost student advising. Working paper.
Carrell, S.E., & Sacerdote, B. (2012). Late interventions matter too: The case of college coaching New Hampshire. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.