|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,689||Benefits minus costs||$5,162|
|Participants||$2,063||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.30|
|Others||$868||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$4,503||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($3,962)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,162|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Adult use of alcohol that does not rise to the level of “problem” or “disordered.”
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
“All-cause mortality,” or the proportion of all deaths in a given population during a specified period of time, regardless of the cause.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
Opioid use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of opioid use disorder or symptoms on a validated scale.
STD risky behavior^
For youth, this outcome includes unprotected sex and other behaviors. For high-risk drug users, this also includes intravenous drug use.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1||$0||$3||$1||$4|
|Opioid use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$564||$1,324||$0||$0||$1,888|
|Health care associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$862||$123||$865||$431||$2,282|
|Mortality associated with opioids||$262||$616||$0||$6,053||$6,930|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,981)||($1,981)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,613||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,962)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Bale, R.N., Van, S.W.W., Kuldau, J.M., Engelsing, T.M., Elashoff, R.M., & Zarcone, V.P.J. (1980). Therapeutic communities vs methadone maintenance. A prospective controlled study of narcotic addiction treatment: design and one-year follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 2, 179-193.
Dolan, K.A., Shearer, J., MacDonald, M., Mattick, R.P., Hall, W., & Wodak, A.D. (2003). A randomised controlled trial of methadone maintenance treatment versus wait list control in an Australian prison system. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 72(1), 59-65.
Gronbladh, L. & Gunne, L. (1989). Methadone-assisted rehabilitation of Swedish heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 24(1), 31-37.
Gruber, V.A., Delucchi, K.L., Kielstein, A., & Batki, S.L. (2008). A randomized trial of 6-month methadone maintenance with standard or minimal counseling versus 21-day methadone detoxification. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94, 1, 199-206.
Kinlock, T., Gordon, M., Schwartz, R., O'Grady, K., Fitzgerald, T., & Wilson, M. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: Results at 1-month post-release. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91(2-3), 220-227.
Newman, R., & Whitehill, W. (1979). Double-blind comparison of methadone and placebo maintenance treatments of narcotic addicts in Hong Kong. The Lancet, 314(8141), 485-488.
Schwartz, R.P., Highfield, D.A., Jaffe, J.H., Brady, J.V., Butler, C.B., Rouse, C.O., Callaman, J.M., ... Battjes, R.J. (2006). A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(1), 102-9.
Schwartz, R.P., Jaffe, J.H., Highfield, D.A., Callaman, J.M., & O'Grady, K.E. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance: 10-Month follow-up. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 86(1), 30-36.
Strain, E.C., Stitzer, M. L., Liebson, I.A., & Bigelow, G.E. (1993). Dose-response effects of methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119(1), 23-27.
Vanichseni, S., Wongsuwan, B., Choopanya, K., & Wongpanich, K. (1991). A controlled trial of methadone maintenance in a population of intravenous drug users in Bangkok: Implications for prevention of HIV. International Journal of the Addictions, 26(12), 1.
Wilson, M.E., Schwartz, R.P., O'Grady, K.E., & Jaffe, J.H. (2010). Impact of interim methadone maintenance on HIV risk behaviors. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 87(4), 586-591.