|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,689||Benefits minus costs||$5,162|
|Participants||$2,063||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.30|
|Others||$868||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$4,503||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($3,962)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,162|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Opioid use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of opioid use disorder or symptoms on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
Adult use of alcohol that does not rise to the level of “problem” or “disordered.”
“All-cause mortality,” or the proportion of all deaths in a given population during a specified period of time, regardless of the cause.
STD risky behavior^
For youth, this outcome includes unprotected sex and other behaviors. For high-risk drug users, this also includes intravenous drug use.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$1||$0||$3||$1||$4|
|Opioid use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$564||$1,324||$0||$0||$1,888|
|Health care associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$862||$123||$865||$431||$2,282|
|Mortality associated with opioids||$262||$616||$0||$6,053||$6,930|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,981)||($1,981)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,613||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,962)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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