|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,684||Benefits minus costs||$3,786|
|Participants||$2,058||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.78|
|Others||$863||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$4,039||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($4,859)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,786|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Emergency department visits^^
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Opioid use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of opioid use disorder or symptoms on a validated scale.
Mental health symptoms (such as symptoms of psychosis) in individuals with serious mental illness, measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Opioid use disorder||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Labor market earnings associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$562||$1,321||$0||$0||$1,884|
|Health care associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$860||$123||$863||$430||$2,276|
|Mortality associated with opioids||$261||$614||$0||$6,038||$6,914|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,429)||($2,429)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,431||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,859)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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